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If you have not yet planned how you will set up your partitions, turn to Appendix B. There you'll find an introduction to basic disk partitioning concepts. As a bare minimum, you'll need an appropriately-sized root partition, and a swap partition of at least 16 MB.
Figure 14-14 shows the two disk partitioning applications that are available for you to use.
If you will be using
Figure 14-14. Disk Setup Dialog
The following sections describe the layout of Figure 14-15 and how to use its buttons to set up partitions. If you're already familiar with Disk Druid, you can partition your disk and skip to the section called Choose Partitions to Format Dialog.
You use the disk partitioning dialogs to tell the installation program where to install Red Hat Linux (Figure 14-15).
Figure 14-15. Disk Druid Main ScreenThe Current Disk Partitions Section
Each line in the
Note the scroll bar to the right, which indicates that there may be more partitions than can be displayed at one time. If you use the
Mount Point -- Indicates where the partition will be mounted when Red Hat Linux is installed (such as /, /boot, or swap). Device -- Displays specific hard drive and partition information. Requested -- Shows the partition's initial size. Actual -- Shows the partition's current size. Type -- Shows the partition's type.
As you scroll through the
Each line in the
Drive -- Shows the hard disk's device name. Geom [C/H/S] -- Shows the hard disk's geometry. The geometry consists of three numbers representing the number of cylinders, heads and sectors as reported by the hard disk. Total -- Shows the total available space on the hard disk. Used -- Shows how much of the hard disk's space is currently allocated to partitions. Free -- Shows how much of the hard disk's space is still unallocated. Bar Graph -- Presents a visual representation of the space currently used on the hard disk. The more pound signs there are between the square braces, the less free space there is. In Figure 14-15, the bar graph shows no free space.
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These buttons control
Add -- Request a new partition. Selecting this button causes a dialog box to appear containing fields that must be filled in. Edit -- Modify the mount point of the partition currently highlighted in the Current Disk Partitions section. Selecting this button will cause a dialog box to appear allowing you to change the name of the mount point. Delete -- Delete the partition currently highlighted in the Current Disk Partitions section. Selecting this button will cause a dialog box to appear asking you to confirm the deletion. OK -- Confirm that changes made to your system's partitions to be written to disk. You will be asked to confirm the changes before Disk Druid rewrites your hard disk partition table(s). In addition, any mount points you've defined are passed to the installation program, and will eventually be used by your Red Hat Linux system to define the filesystem layout. Back -- Abort without saving any changes you've made. When this button is selected, the installation program will take you back to the previous screen, so you can start over.
You will need to dedicate at least one partition to Red Hat Linux, and optionally more. This is discussed more completely in the section called How Many Partitions? in Appendix B.Adding a Partition
To add a new partition, select the
Figure 14-16. Edit New Partition Dialog
The screen contains the following fields:
Mount Point -- Highlight this field and enter the partition's mount point. For example, if this partition should be the root partition, enter /; enter /usr for the /usr partition, and so on. Size (Megs) -- In this field, enter the size (in megabytes) of the partition. Note that this field starts with a '1' in it, meaning that unless you change it, you'll end up with a 1 MB partition. Delete it using the Backspace key, and enter the desired partition size. Grow to fill disk? -- This check box indicates whether the size you entered in the previous field is to be considered the partition's exact size, or its minimum size. Press Space to select this option. When selected, the partition will grow to fill all available space on the hard disk. In this case, the partition's size will expand and contract as other partitions are modified. If you make more than one partition growable, the partitions will compete for the available free space on the disk. Type -- This field contains a list of different partition types. Select the appropriate partition type by using the Up and Down arrow keys. Allowable Drives -- This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system, with a check box for each. If a hard disk's box is checked, then this partition may be created on that hard disk. By using different check box settings, you can direct Disk Druid to place partitions as you see fit, or let Disk Druid decide where partitions should go. OK -- Select this button and press Space when you are satisfied with the partition's settings, and wish to create it. Cancel -- Select this button and press Space when you don't want to create the partition.
Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create thefollowing partitions:
A swap partition (at least 16MB) -- Swap partitions are used to support
virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a swappartition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system isprocessing. If your computer has 16MB of RAM or less, you must create a swap partition. Even if you have morememory, a swap partition is still recommended. The minimum size of your swappartition should be equal to your computer's RAM, or 16MB (whichever islarger). In Disk Druid, the partition field for swap should look similar to:
/boot partition (16MB, maximum) -- The partition mountedon /boot contains the operating system kernel (which allowsyour system to boot Red Hat Linux), along with files used during the bootstrap process.Due to the limitations of most PC BIOSes, creating a small partition to holdthese files is a good idea. This partition should be no larger than 16MB. In Disk Druid, the partition field for /boot should look similar to:
root partition (900MB-1.7GB) -- This is where' /' (the root directory) resides. In this setup, all files(except those stored in /boot) reside on the rootpartition. A 850MB root partition will permit the equivalent of aworkstation-class installation (with very little freespace), while a 1.7GB root partition will let you install every package. In Disk Druid, the partition field for / should looksimilar to:
If you are having problems adding a partition, turn to Appendix B,
If you attempt to add a partition and
Figure 14-17. Unallocated Partitions DialogEditing a Partition
To change a partition's mount point, highlight the partition in the
Figure 14-18. Edit Partition DialogDeleting a Partition
To delete a partition, highlight the partition in the
Once you've configured your partitions and entered your mount points, you screen should look something like Figure 14-19.
Figure 14-19. Current Disk Partitions DialogChoose Partitions to Format Dialog
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Next, select which partitions you want to format (Figure 14-20). You must format all newly created partitions and other partitions that contain old data (assuming they don't contain data you wish to keep).
Figure 14-20. Choose Partitions to FormatCaution
If partitions such as
When you have selected the partitions to format, press
If you chose a custom-class installation, you also chose which disk partitioning application to use. This section only applies if you opted to use
Once you've selected
You will then enter
Figure 14-21. Disk Setup DialogAn Overview of fdisk
The command for help is
To list the current partition table, use the
p command (see Figure 14-22).
To add a new partition, use
fdisk creates partitions of type Linux native by default. When you create a swap partition, don't forget to change it to type Linux swap using the t command. The value for the Linux swap type is 82. For other partition types, use the l command to see a list of partition types and values.
Linux allows up to four (4) partitions on one disk. If you wish to create more than that, one (and only one) of the four may be an
extended partition, which acts as a container for one or more logical partitions. Since it acts as a container, the extended partition must be at least as large as the total size of all the logical partitions it is to contain.
It's a good idea to write down which partitions (e.g.,
/dev/hda2) are meant for which filesystems (e.g., /usr) as you create each one.
None of the changes you make take effect until you save them and exit
Figure 14-22. Sample Output from
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When you are finished partitioning your disks, press